What are the Secondary Structure of Proteins?

secondary structure of proteins

The term secondary structure refers to the interaction of the hydrogen bond donor and acceptor residues of the repeating peptide unit. The two most important secondary structure of proteins, the alpha helix, and the beta sheet were predicted by the American chemist Linus Pauling in the early 1950s. Pauling and …

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What is Thermodynamics? Explain the Thermodynamic Laws?


Energy exists in many forms, such as heat, light, chemical energy, and electrical energy. Energy is the ability to bring about change or to do work. Thermodynamics is the study of energy. The thermodynamics is concerned with energy changes accompanying a given process (physical or chemical) and not with the …

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VITAMINS: What are Vitamins and its sources (Basic Guide)

what are vitamins

In developed countries, vitamin deficiencies result mainly from poverty, food fads, drugs, or alcoholism. Vitamin toxicity (hypervitaminosis) usually results from taking mega doses of Vit.A, D, B6, or niacin. It may be fat soluble (A, D, E, and K) and water-soluble (B and C). The B vitamins include biotin, folate, …

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What are the Physiological Buffers of Human Body?

physiological buffers in human body

What are the Physiological Buffers in the Human Body and its importance? The normal hydrogen ion concentration of body fluids is about 40 nmol liter (pH–7.4): during the course of one day, some 60 mmol/liter of hydrogen ion is added to it which, if not buffered, would raise the concentration …

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What is Buffer Solution? Types and Calculations

buffer solutions

A buffer solution is one that resists pH change on the addition of acid or alkali. Such solutions are used in many biochemical experiments where the pH needs to be accurately controlled. Buffer solution definition: A buffer solution (more precisely, pH buffer or hydrogen ion buffer) is an aqueous solution consisting of a mixture of a weak …

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What is Chemical Bonding? Basic Mechanism of Bonding

chemical bonding

During the nineteenth century, chemists arranged the then-known elements according to chemical bonding, recognizing that one group (the furthermost right column on the Periodic Table, referred to as the Inert Gases or Noble Gases) tended to occur in elemental form (in other words, not in a molecule with other elements). …

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