Nucleic Acid Structures: Basic structures of Nucleosides, Nucleotides

Nucleic Acids Structures

In Nucleic acid structures, there are two types of nucleic acid. They are DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid) are polymers of nucleotides linked in a chain through phosphodiester bonds. In biological systems, they serve as information-carrying molecules or, in the case of some RNA molecules, catalysts. This brief review will …

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Metabolism of Lipids in Humans (Short Guide)

Metabolism of Lipids in Humans

The major aspects of the metabolism of lipids are involved with Fatty Acid Oxidation to produce energy or the synthesis of lipids which is called Lipogenesis. Lipid metabolism is closely connected to the metabolism of carbohydrates which may be converted to fats. This can be seen in the diagram on …

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Ramachandran Plot : Polypeptide chain conformation

ramachandran plot - peptide changes

Ramachandran plot is a plot of the torsional angles – phi (φ)and psi (ψ) – of the residues (amino acids) contained in a peptide. In sequence order, φ is the N(i-1),C(i),Ca(i),N(i) torsion angle and ψ is the C(i),Ca(i),N(i),C(i+1) torsion angle. The plot was developed in 1963 by G. N. Ramachandran,  …

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Diagnostic Enzymes: The Serum markers in Clinical Analysis and Biosensors

what are diagnostic enzymes

Enzymes as biocatalysts have been widely used in industrial processes such as food processing, beer fermentation, laundry detergents, pickling purposes, and control, as well as accelerate, the catalytic reactions in order to quickly and precisely obtain various valuable end products. The enzymes are more frequently used in both laboratories and …

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Hydrogen Bonding – Types and its Nature

hydrogen bonding structure

A hydrogen bonding is a special type of dipole-dipole attraction which occurs when a hydrogen atom bonded to a strongly electronegative atom exists in the vicinity of another electronegative atom with a lone pair of electrons. These bonds are generally stronger than ordinary dipole-dipole and dispersion forces, but weaker than …

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