UNIT 3: Fundamental Processes

Unit 3: Fundamental Processes

This is the Unit -3 section of CSIR NET Life Sciences examination syllabus. Unit name is Fundamental Processes. In this unit, Molecular biology topic was included.

Unit 3 Fundamental process

Unit 3 Syllabus
  1. DNA replication, repair and recombination: Unit of replication, enzymes involved,  replication origin and replication fork,  the fidelity of replication, extra-chromosomal replicons, DNA damage and repair mechanisms. 
  2. RNA synthesis and processing:  Transcription factors and machinery, the formation of initiation complex, transcription activators and repressors, RNA polymerases, capping,  elongation and termination, RNA processing, RNA editing, splicing, polyadenylation, structure, and function of different types of RNA, RNA transport. 
  3. Protein synthesis and processing: Ribosome, the formation of initiation complex, initiation factors and their regulation, elongation and elongation factors, termination, genetic code, aminoacylation of tRNA, tRNA-identity, aminoacyl tRNA synthetase,  translational proof-reading, translational inhibitors, post- translational modification of proteins. 
  4. Control of gene expression at transcription and translation level:  Regulation of phages, viruses, prokaryotic and eukaryotic gene expression, the role of chromatin in regulating gene expression and gene silencing.

Fundamental Process Study materials:

The Lactose Operon (lac operon) concept : prokaryotic gene regulation

Lac Operon : Regulation of Gene Expression in Prokaryotes

What is Gene Expression? Definition of Gene Regulation is “the control of gene regulation and expression is very well understood in prokaryotes. The switching on and off of the gene to regulate the synthesis of various proteins (the enzymes, for example) is essential. The fluctuation in the immediate environment of the organism is coped with […]

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Capping structure in mRNA

Cap Structure in mRNA: Basics and Structure

Cap structure in mRNA (Guanyl cap) is a chemical modification of mRNA molecules in eukaryotes, which drastically increases the stability of RNA and important for the transport of the RNA out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm and the subsequent translation of mRNAs by the ribosomes. RNA Polymerase: The Enzyme Structure and Its Types Deoxyribonucleic […]


What is DNA Polymerase and its function in DNA Replication

The first postulate the central dogma, experimentally proved and is that the DNA is capable of self-replication. This was immediately deduced by Watson and Crick that each DNA strand uniquely specifies its complement, but it took long for the details of the mechanism are elucidated. The first question was that of conservation of replication mechanism. The now […]

Mendelism and mendel lawsMendelism and mendel laws

What is Mendelian Law and Mendelism?

The contribution of Mendel to genetics is called Mendelism. Mendel is called the Father of Genetics. He was born in a peasant family in 1822 in Austria. In 1843, he entered the monastery at Brunn and in 1847 he was ordained as a Priest. After completing the theological studies, he worked as a substitute teacher […]