Proteins : Basic and Structural organization


Proteins are very important in biological systems as control and structural elements. Control functions of proteins are carried out by enzymes and proteinaceous hormones. Enzymes are chemicals that act as organic catalysts (a catalyst is a chemical that promotes but is not changed by a chemical reaction). Proteins Basic units …

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Lipids: What are Lipids, Phospholipids and Cholesterol?

What are the Lipids

Lipids are involved mainly in long-term energy storage. They are generally insoluble in polar substances such as water. Secondary functions of lipids include structural components (as in the case of phospholipids that are the major building block in cell membranes) and “messengers” (hormones) that play roles in communications within and …

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Carbohydrates : Classification and its Basics

what are carbohydrates? How to Classify?

The carbohydrates are an important class of naturally occurring organic compounds These include glucose (grape sugar), fructose (Honey sugar), Sucrose (Cane sugar), Starch and cellulose (wood).  They are all composed of C, H and O. In general, carbohydrates can be represented by the formula Cm(H2O)n. Thus glucose, C6H12O6 can be written as …

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Structure of Atoms and Molecules (Basic Chemistry)

structure of atoms and molecules

Most of the Universe consists of matter and energy. Energy is the capacity to do work. The matter has mass and occupies space. All matter is composed of basic elements that cannot be broken down into substances with different chemical or physical properties. Elements are substances consisting of one type …

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Replicons: What is Replicons and Where it is located? (Basic Functions)

what is replicons in cell

For most prokaryotic chromosomes, the replicon is the entire chromosome. One notable exception found comes from archaea, where two Sulfolobus species have been shown to contain three replicons. Examples of bacterial species that have been found to possess multiple replicons include Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Vibrio cholera, and Burkholderia multivorans. These “Secondary” …

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What are the Origin of replication in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

What are the Origin of replication

What is the origin of replication? It (also called the replication origin) is a particular sequence in a genome at which replication is initiated. This can either involve the replication of DNA in living organisms such as prokaryotes and eukaryotes, or that of DNA or RNA in viruses, such as Double-stranded RNA viruses. …

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