What is Buffer Solution? Types and Calculations

buffer solutions

A buffer solution is one that resists pH change on the addition of acid or alkali. Such solutions are used in many biochemical experiments where the pH needs to be accurately controlled. Buffer solution definition: A buffer solution (more precisely, pH buffer or hydrogen ion buffer) is an aqueous solution consisting of a mixture of a weak …

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What is Bacterial Stress Response?

Bacterial stress response

Bacteria can survive under varied conditions (called Bacterial Stress Response), and to overcome adverse situations, the changes must be sensed by bacteria and mount reactions in protein activity and gene expression. The stress reaction in bacteria involves a system of components that behave against the stimulation. Compounds can respond simultaneously …

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What are the key structures and functions of the Mitochondria?


Mitochondrial are present in all eukaryotic cells and are the major sites of aerobic respiration within cells. they were first seen as granules in muscle cells in 1850. The number of mitochondrial per cell varies considerably and depends on the type of organism and the nature of the cell. This …

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What are the Branches of Life Sciences and their meanings?

branches of life sciences

Are you searching for Branches of Life Sciences? here is the short guide on this topic. Biology is the study of living organisms, divided into many specialized fields that cover their morphology, physiology, anatomy, behavior, origin, and distribution. It can be divided into two main subjects: Botany (the study of …

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What are the Cells of Immune System? (Basic Immune Cells)

cells of immune system

Lymphocytes are the central cells of the immune system, responsible for acquired immunity & the immunologic attributes of diversity, specificity, many and self/non-self recognition. It constitutes 20% to 40% of the body’s WBC and 99% of the cells in the lymph. The lymphocytes can be broadly subdivided into three populations: …

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What is Chemical Bonding? Basic Mechanism of Bonding

chemical bonding

During the nineteenth century, chemists arranged the then-known elements according to chemical bonding, recognizing that one group (the furthermost right column on the Periodic Table, referred to as the Inert Gases or Noble Gases) tended to occur in elemental form (in other words, not in a molecule with other elements). …

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