Endoplasmic Reticulum: Basics and Functions

Endoplasmic Reticulum

According to Dallmer (1966), Endoplasmic Reticulum is originated from the plasma membrane by the investigation. According to Derobertis (1970), the ER originates from the nuclear envelope.  The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) is a strikingly complex structure within the cell and has three morphologically distinct regions: Sheets of the nuclear envelope A network of interconnected …

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Nucleic Acid Structures: Basic structures of Nucleosides, Nucleotides

Nucleic Acids Structures

In Nucleic acid structures, there are two types of nucleic acid. They are DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid) are polymers of nucleotides linked in a chain through phosphodiester bonds. In biological systems, they serve as information-carrying molecules or, in the case of some RNA molecules, catalysts. This brief review will …

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Metabolism of Lipids in Humans (Short Guide)

Metabolism of Lipids in Humans

The major aspects of the metabolism of lipids are involved with Fatty Acid Oxidation to produce energy or the synthesis of lipids which is called Lipogenesis. Lipid metabolism is closely connected to the metabolism of carbohydrates which may be converted to fats. This can be seen in the diagram on …

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Ramachandran Plot : Polypeptide chain conformation

ramachandran plot - peptide changes

Ramachandran plot is a plot of the torsional angles – phi (φ)and psi (ψ) – of the residues (amino acids) contained in a peptide. In sequence order, φ is the N(i-1),C(i),Ca(i),N(i) torsion angle and ψ is the C(i),Ca(i),N(i),C(i+1) torsion angle. The plot was developed in 1963 by G. N. Ramachandran,  …

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What is Passive Transport, Types and its Function

Passive transport

Passive transport occurs when no energy is required to move a substance, such as water or carbon dioxide, from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until the concentration is equal, sometimes across a membrane. The high-to-low concentration gradient is the driving force for passive transport …

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Diagnostic Enzymes: The Serum markers in Clinical Analysis and Biosensors

what are diagnostic enzymes

Enzymes as biocatalysts have been widely used in industrial processes such as food processing, beer fermentation, laundry detergents, pickling purposes, and control, as well as accelerate, the catalytic reactions in order to quickly and precisely obtain various valuable end products. The enzymes are more frequently used in both laboratories and …

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